Vaccinations and How They Disrupt the Immune System
Patricia Jordan DVM, VND
There is historical evidence that the Chinese were the first to attempt the theory of vaccination during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).1 This procedure was called virolation and was first used with small pox crusts as snuff to blow up the nostrils of people they hoped to affect. Virolation by the Chinese predates the small pox work of Edward Jenner, Farmer Jesty and Lady Montague by five centuries.2 The Chinese discontinued the attempts at vaccination as they discovered the process did not help and actually made conditions worse for the patient. How intelligent this deduction was back in that period of time. The Chinese from the medical perspective saw the vaccine as a pathogen and invoked the Divergent Meridians to take the pathogen and translocate it to the interior of the body. In order to do this, to make the pathogen latent, the body had to expend its resources, Yuan Qi and Yin-Jing which is dense and heavy and kept the pathogen dormant (which the body does in the joints/bones/marrow).
The problems in babies and in animals of all ages that are receiving a continuous yearly load of pathogen impact via vaccines, is that the Yuan Qi and Jing should not be disturbed at these young stages of development and thereafter so frequently in life. The additional problems of a poor diet , the use of excessive drugs like antibiotics and resultant Qi depletion is an overall lack of capability to maintain dormancy of the pathogens.
When overwhelmed with vaccinations in addition, these mechanisms leave the individual vulnerable. With so many resources being allocated to deal with the vaccines, what is left of the Vital Force to handle the vicissitudes of daily living? Poor nutrition and environmental toxins and chemicals along with the synthetic use of drugs all tax and handicap the body, so that the bodies are coming into immune compromise and depletion much too quickly.
The vaccines themselves stimulate adverse reactions causing disease, disability, organ failure, cancer, autoimmune disease and sometimes death. The number of dog vaccines has grown from 4 administered only once or twice in a lifetime to 20 and often aggressively administered twice a year! The intent of this commentary is to introduce to the reader to just a few pathways of immunopathology resulting from vaccine administration. When dealing with a patient exhibiting any clinical signs, remember to obtain vaccine administration history and remember that the ancient Chinese were indeed able to link the correlation of vaccination to the disharmonies of health that followed.
In lectures I have attended by veterinary vaccine researchers such as Drs. Ron Schultz, Richard Ford, Jean Dodd and Dennis Macy, the pathways to pathology from vaccination have been clearly associated. The only vaccine that Dr. Ron Schultz is still advocating is the 3 way vaccine for the three lethal viruses, distemper, adenovirus and parvovirus (and the rabies until we get the laws changed).3 For the cat, the only lethal virus he advocates vaccination for is the feline distemper. Dr. Schultz lays out the pathology that follows cats vaccinated with herpes virus or calicivirus vaccines if administered by injection. He also advises that these vaccines against the lethal viruses are only necessary once in a lifetime to a mature mammalian immune system in order to result in genetic imprinting, incorporation of the viral proteins into the genome to affect pathogen sensitization of the patientâ€™s immune cells. Additional administration just increases the adverse events and vaccine induced disease. Lymphoma is now understood to result from chronic B cell stimulation, chronic stimulation by antigen, vaccines result in antigenic stimulation, adjuvant ensures the chronic stimulation.4
The rabies virus vaccine is full of its own problems with autoimmune disease production and adverse events such as ascending paralysis and encephalitis which have occurred since Pasteur first started grinding up infected spinal cords and injecting them into subjects.5 There is evidence from as far back as 1954, published, and 1945, unpublished, that only one rabies vaccine injected into the mature body of a mammalian immune system is capable of sensitizing the patient for life against the rabies virus.6 Other work followed in the 1970â€™s. Research to confirm this is currently being performed by Dr. Schultz and his group as the vaccine manufacturers are not releasing their data that establishes this fact.7 There was a study done in France on cats and dogs vaccinated against rabies that showed that animals were still resisting a rabies viral challenge 5 years after vaccination.8 As well there are human cases where the rabies vaccine amnestic response has been effective for 14 years.9
Humans have pathogen recognition of small pox for 92 years after vaccination. Once thought to be 50 years in duration and even less when they first started the procedure of vaccine administration, it is now well understood that most viral vaccines give pathogen recognition for the entire life of the patient.10 My clinical experience is that this amnestic can also be passed vertically from one generation to the next, why not, it is genetic incorporation we are talking about. Dr. Ron Schultz and Dr. Jean Dodd are on record that only one or two rabies vaccines will be sufficient for the life of the animal and are both working with the Rabies Challenge Fund to establish the scientific criteria necessary to change the laws regarding rabies vaccination in this country.
In 1972 the American Veterinary Medical Association first recommended vaccinating yearly, despite the decades of successful use of vaccines administered only in the first year of life. Representatives from the drug manufacturers and several regulatory representatives were the ones whom advised the AVMA to institute a change to yearly vaccine recommendations, not active small animal practitioners and not immunologists.11 The AVMA enacted this radical change despite the clear acknowledgement that yearly vaccines were not necessary and that the current practice of only administering pediatric vaccines had been enough to successfully control infectious disease. What has resulted from this unscientific and non evidence based procedure of vaccination administration? Dr. Ron Schultz now sees autoimmune diseases in animals that previously did not exhibit this. Our farmed fishes that we now vaccinate due to the stress and disease that follow intensive farming practices are now being diagnosed with autoimmune diseases.12 The AVMA appointed Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcoma Task Force has a decade of research showing the vaccine induced cancers and not just in the feline species, not just at the injection site and not just sarcomas. The unparalleled rise of chronic degenerative diseases, cancer, allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, disability and deaths is illustrated in the following graphs using the increased rate of vaccination on humans 13
Following is an incomplete list of adverse events and diseases that follow vaccination. After 25 years of being in the veterinary field, this list presented in 2007 at Warwick, Rhode Island is the first time in my veterinary career that any veterinary medical researcher has presented this information to veterinary professionals. (Schultz) Common Reactions included; lethargy, hair loss, hair color change at injection site (cutaneous vasculitis), fever, soreness, stiffness, refusal to eat, conjunctivitis, sneezing, and oral ulcers. Moderate reactions included; immunosuppression, behavioral changes, vitiligo, weight loss (cachexia), reduced milk production, lameness, granulomas/abscesses, hives, facial edema, atopy, respiratory disease and allergic uveitis (blue eye). Severe reactions triggered by vaccines included; vaccine injection site sarcomas, anaphylaxis, arthritis, polyarthritis, hypertrophy osteodystrophy, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune mediated thrombocytopenia, hemolytic disease of the newborn (neonatal isoerythrolysis), thyroiditis and glomerulonephritis. Disease or enhanced disease which with the vaccine was designed to prevent included; myocarditis, post vaccinal encephalitis or polyneuritis, seizures, abortion, congenital anomalies, embryonic/fetal death and infertility. Dr. Ron Schultz is one record with the statement that anytime you inject you could potentially kill the patient and to assume vaccination is safe is a serious misrepresentation of the facts.14 The AVMA is now on record with this caution not to assume the safety of vaccinations.
From these post vaccinal reactions, it can be understood that vaccination is not an â€œinnocuousâ€ procedure and that the risk versus the benefit of vaccination must be reviewed. For more information on vaccine induced disease, review the United Stateâ€™s Federal Registry of adverse vaccine events in humans and the reported adverse events that follow vaccination reported through VAERS. The factual link of vaccination to damage is the reason the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Act was made into law. Adverse events from vaccinations are grossly unreported in both human and veterinary medicine and the lack of a central independent site for registering vaccine adverse events leaves the veterinary medical professional at a serious advantage and unable to collect even an informed consent or full disclosure statement prior to the procedure. 15 The AVMA is on record with the statement that the canine immune system is not different from the mammalian immune system and thus the reporting of vaccine induced diseases in human medicine and research is relevant to what we see in practice. Oncology Diplomate Dr. Dennis Macy is a supporter of the Veterinary Vaccine Injury Compensation Act that would address vaccine injury from veterinary vaccines even though the only lawfully mandated vaccine for animals is the rabies vaccine. Since the suggestion that a single vaccination against only the lethal viruses was necessary by leading veterinary infectious disease experts, the author has studied what science did know about vaccine induced immunopathology and found the reasons to support a position of not causing disease in my patients through the additional vaccinations protocols still much too prevalent today.
The following is a brief overview of some of the pathophysiology produced by vaccination reported in the scientific literature: the different ingredients in the vaccines, aluminum and mercury are linked to immune dysregulation as are the viruses, the mutators and carcinogens in the vaccines. The big moment of epiphany for the author was the reaction that the antigen in vaccines does much to dysregulate the immune system by the very interaction with immune cells leading to autoantibody production, autoimmune disease, loss of tolerance, immune mediated pathology, all four forms (type I-IV) of immune system reactions, oxidative damage, chronic inflammation, cancer, to even speeding up the aging process (Selyeâ€™s Disease)
1. Lymphocyte suppression from canine polyvalent vaccines in dogs and in chickens with the avian pneumovirus vaccine. 16
2. Post vaccinal lesions of the nervous system and the role of the autoimmune process of pathogenesis. 17
3. Immune mediated glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, uveitis, polyarthritis, non-regenerative anemia, renal organ failure and hepatic organ failure, auto-inflammatory syndrome, immune mediated inflammatory neuropathies, autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Gullian Barre Syndrome (post infectious auto-immune disease) Common Immune Deficiency, ischemic dermatopathologies (cutaneous vasculitis), post injection site granuloma, necrotizing panniculitis, vaccine induced type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyelopathy, acute coronary events, vaccine induced enhancement of viral infection, aberrant viral pathogenesis, IgE class switching and behavioral changes of increased anxiety, increased aggression and increased compulsive obsessive disorder.18
4. Molecular mimicry (example of how measles in MWR vaccine is able to cause SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis which is autism), distemper and molecular mimicry leading to myelin sheath autoimmune inflammation, neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies, and thimerasol in vaccines altering the function of the dendritic cells in antigen presentation 19
5. Particularities of the vasculature which promotes organ specificity of autoimmune disease. 20
6. Histamine dysregulation up or down as a result of vaccinations. 21
7. Inflammatory arthritis and intractable chronic arthritis. 22
8. Immune mediated thyroiditis 23
9. Thymic depletion 24
10. Autoimmunity, loss of tolerance 25
11. Vascular induction of mini-strokes, blood stasis 26
12. T cell suppression allowing co-infections with bacteria, viruses, fungus, yeast and parasites (intestinal and dermatophyte)27
13. Immunodeficiency (this imparts the necessity to NOT vaccinate in any situation the cats that are Felv or FIV positive and the necessity of knowing the immune status before any stressful immunosuppressive actions taken against them (e.g. anesthesia, spay, neuter). Vaccinating immunosupressed individuals increases adverse events and expression of the very infections they are being vaccinated against. This holds true for the patients undergoing chemotherapy and other immune suppressing medications e.g. cyclosporine (Atopica) prescribed for over reactive immune systems up regulated from damage associated with earlier vaccine administration.28
14. Cytokine cascade promotion and onset of inflammatory cascade 29
The above list is not comprehensive as that would be beyond the scope of this commentary due to space limitations, it is however the outline of a second book on vaccine damage by this author. There is voluminous evidence for the association of cancer with vaccines and the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have clearly established the information that adjuvant in vaccines are Grade 3 out of 4 carcinogens, with Grade 4 being the most likely to induce cancer.30 Dr. Rich Ford has stated that the adjuvant aluminum in the vaccines is one culprit in mutating our genome and specifically the P53 oncogene thereby ruining the individualâ€™s ability to stop tumor genesis.31 The smoking gun proof of this is the presence of the blue grey aluminum foreign body retrieved from biopsy specimens of vaccinated individuals. The vaccines are causing cancer formation not just in cats but also dogs and ferrets and not just at the injection site of a vaccine. The fact that these very same vaccine ingredients are the same carcinogens in the childhood vaccines mandated by our government in the national childhood vaccine program is of serious concern. The rise in childhood brain cancer is the most highly associated vaccine administered cancer in children and this is of certain consequence to the current vaccines and vaccination protocols32
It is understood now, that vaccination is not the same as immunization, that production of antibody is not the same as immunity and to the vaccinologists out there Dr. Ron Schultz states â€œthis is an indefensible practiceâ€.33 Since 1978 veterinary vaccine research authorities have been advising against yearly vaccinations.34 Vaccination has never been linked to any science or evidence based medicine but only to precedence and since 1978 to the generation of income.35 The problem with the veterinarians over-vaccinating is now causing public health problems. Emory Universityâ€™s Rollinsâ€™ School of Public Health has a published a paper on how human illness is associated with use of veterinary vaccines.36 Others, like Dr. Traavik, Biosafety Officer for the country of Norway, are alerting us to the dangers of the recombinant vaccine technology, the use of chimera viruses that are transferring disease to man.37 Dr. Michael Fox has been concerned about the impact of the unregulated and uncontrolled use of these genetically engineered viruses in vaccines and the future this plaque is bringing upon mankind.38
My research into the number of rabies vaccines recently recalled and the hundreds of thousands of human rabies vaccines recalled in the past for â€œfailure to inactivate the rabies virusâ€ are very disconcerting as is the recall of rabies vaccines due to unauthorized inclusion of human DNA in the vaccines. Vaccines do not enjoy any science of benefit and were never shown historically to even affect the level of infectious diseases. John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health includes this information on their website. How far do we have to continue to keep ourselves immunized against the fact that the very act of vaccination is what is causing disease in this westernized world?
Vaccination is an obstacle to cure; vaccination is the induction into a cycle of disease and disease management that is in every way a violation of the AVMA 1969 Veterinary Oath, in every way including public health and animal welfare.
The use of TCVM will not be able to successfully restore health to our patients if vaccinations are allowed to continue to corrupt the patientâ€™s immune system. Blood stasis, Qi depletion, Liver Yin Deficiency and Blood Deficiency will always be the root of disease while vaccinations remain the non-evidence based medical procedure that is the hallmark of conventional medicine. The bodyâ€™s Qi will try to imprison these toxins and poisons in the joints bone and marrow, but the body with continual bombardment will be quickly depleted. Our patients deserve to have us conform to our duties spoken in the Veterinary Oath and our obligation to stay current with the advancements of scientific research. In my opinion, vaccination is not science based, nor evidence based medicine, but rather the risky business fulfilled by corporations able to control the licensing and the distribution, administration and promotion even the mandate by law of this poisoning of the blood. The Chinese were correct in the age of the Song Dynasty, the Dynasty associated with both Emperorâ€™s Song and the peopleâ€™s technological advancements. The ancient Chinese were able to abandon a practice that proved ineffective and proved an impediment to restoring health. This is an example where old medicine is new again and once again a gift to the world from the people of China.
1. Temple R. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. 1986: 135.
2. Behbehani AM. The small pox story: life and death of an old disease. Microbiological Reviews Dec 1983; Vol 47 No.4: 455-509.
3. Schultz R. Everything you need to know about vaccines. Seminar Danbury, CT, June 15, 2007 Sponsored by Cavaliers of the Northeast.
4. Zangani MM et al. Lymphomas can develop from B cells chronically helped by idiotype specific T cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 2007; 204 (5): 1181-1191.
5. Morden M. MD, Rabies Past Present in Scientific Review. Mokelumne, California: Health Research Publisher 1947: also Rabies Radio address WWRL, Jan 25, 1947
Ahasar HA, et al. Neuroparalytic complications after anti-rabies vaccine (inactivated nervous tissue vaccine). Trop Doct 1995 Apr; 25 (2):94.
Bernard KW, et al. Neuroparalytic illness and human diploid cell rabies vaccine. JAMA 1982 Dec 17; 248 (23):3136-8.
Bahri F et al. Neurological complications in adults following rabies vaccine prepared from animal brains. Presse Med 1996 Mar 23; 25 (10): 491-3. In French
McBean E, The Poisoned Needle: Suppressed Facts About Vaccination. ISBN-0-7873-059404
1957 reprinted April 1, 2009. ISBN-101442131292
6. Crick J. The vaccination of man and other animals against rabies. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1973 August; 49: 551-564.
Johnson HN. Experimental studies on the duration of immunity in dogs vaccinated against rabies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1954; 46: 32.
7. Fiala J. AVMA vaccine report surprises skeptics. DVM News 2003 Jan 1 Advanstar Communications http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=43254
Schultz R, Everything you wanted to know about vaccinations. Seminar Danbury, CT June 15th, 2007 Sponsored by the Cavaliers of the Northeast
8. Aubert MF. The practical significance of rabies antibodies in cats and dogs. Scientific Review
1992; 11 (3): 735-760.In French
9. Malerczyk C et al., Duration of immunity an amnestic response with purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine. J Travel Med 2007; 14:63-64.
10. Crotty S et al., Cutting Edge; Long term B cell immunity in humans after small pox vaccination. Immunol 2003 Nov 15; 171 (10):4969-73
Amanna J, Carlson NE et al., Duration of Humoral immunity to common viral and vaccine antigens. NEJM 2007; 357; 1903-15.
11. AVMA Council on Biological and Therapeutic Agents. Synopsis of Vaccination Procedures for Dogs. JAVMA 1973; 162 (3); 228-230.
12. Koppang EO, Bjerkas I., et al., Vaccination-induced systemic autoimmunity in farmed Atlantic salmon. J Immunol. 2008 Oct. 1; 181 (7): 4807-14.
13. http://genesgreenbook.com/content/proof-vaccines-didnâ€™t-save-us has slideshow of graphs from public health sources. April 16, 2008
Schultz R., Tizzard I., Salk J., Siegel G., Swango L., Rude T., Safety, Efficacy the heart of vaccine use , experts discuss pros, cons in vaccine roundtable discussion. DVM Magazine 1988; 119: 16.
14. Schultz R. What Every Veterinarian needs to know About Canine and Feline Vaccines and Vaccination Programs with an Emphasis on Recombinant Vaccines, Warwick, RI April 16, 2008 sponsored by Merial
15. Kessler D., A new approach to reporting medication and device adverse events and product problems. JAMA 1993 June 2; 269 (21): 2785. Also available online http://www.vaccinationnews.com/Adverse_Reactions/VAERS/credible_estimates.htm
World Small Animal Veterinary Association 2007 Vaccination guidelines http://www.wsava.org/SAC.htm
16. Phillips TR et al., Effects of vaccine on the canine immune system. Canadian Journal of Vet Research 1989; 53:154-160.
Kapczynski, D.R., Tumpey T., Immune Functions Following vaccination with an inactivated avian pneumovirus. Western Poultry Disease Conference Proceedings 2002
Havarinasab S., et al., Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerasol in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005; Apr 15; 204 (2): 109-21
17. Negina IuP, Comparative study of auto-antibody formation following immunization with different types of vaccines. ZH Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1980 May; (5): 69-72. Romanov, UA et al, Role of auto-immune processes in the pathogenesis of post vaccinal lesions of the nervous system. ZH Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1977 Oct; 10: 80-93.
Cestnir A et al, The experts peaks; how does a viral infection trigger an autoimmune disease? Viral Immunology 1995; 8 (4):187-192.
Yamamoto K, Possible mechanisms of autoantibody production and the connection of viral infections and human autoimmune diseases. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1994; 173:75-82.
18. Classen BJ, Vaccine induced inflammation linked to endemic Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Open Endocrinology Journal 2008; 2:915.
Lappin M et al, Investigation of the induction of antibodies against Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells lysates and feline renal cells lysates after parental administration of vaccines against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukepenia in cats. AJVMR 2005; 66 (3): 506-11.
Vitale, Gross, Majro, Vaccine induced ischemic dermatopathy in the dog. Veterinary Dermatopathy 1999; 10 (2): 131-142.
Affolter VK, Cutaneous vasculitis and vasculopathology 2004 World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress.
Lator N et al., Neuropathy and cognitive impairment following vaccination with Osp A protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Peripheral Nerve Society, Inc 2004
Clinicianâ€™s Brief: Lyme Nephritis yet no organisms in the kidney 2008 September.
Hutton TA et al, Search for Borrelia burgdorferi in kidneys of dogs suspected of Lyme nephritis. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22:860-864.
Mckisic M et al, Cutting edge; T cell mediated pathology in Murine Lyme Borreliosis. The J of Immunol 2000; 164: 6096-6099.
American Heart Association Meeting 2003 Studies describing heart disease following small pox vaccination. Nov 10 Orlando, Fl http://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-11/aha-sdh102203.php Kuenzle S et al., Pathogens specifically and autoimmunity are distinct features of antigen-driven immune responses in Neuroborreliosis. Infection and Immunity 2007 Aug; 75(8):3842-3847. Frick OL, Brooks DL. Immunoglobulin E antibodies to pollens augmented in dogs by virus vaccines. Am J Vet Res 1981; 44: 440-445.
HogenEsch H, et al., Effect of vaccination on serum concentrations of total and antigen specific immunoglobulin E in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 611-616.
Tater KC et al., Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone or allergen specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66 (9):15772-7.
19. Faseb J. Molecular mimicry and immune-mediated diseases. The Scripps Research Institute, 1998 Oct; 12 (13):1255-65.
Owens GP et al., Screening random peptide libraries with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain derived recombinant antibody identifies multiple epitopes the C-terminal region of the measles virus nucleocapsid protein. Journal of Virology Dec 2006; 80(24): 12121-12130.
20. Binstadt BA, et al. Particularities of the vasculature can promote the organ specificity of autoimmune attack. Nature Immunology 2006 Mar; 7(3): 284-292.
21. Falus A and Meretey K, Histamine: an early messenger in inflamatory and immune reactions. El Sevier Ltd. 1992 Dept of Molecular Biology and Immunology Natural Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy Budapest, Hungary.
Jutel M, Blaser k, Akdes C, The role of histamine in regulation of immune response Crameri (Ed): Allergy and Asthma in Modern Society: A Scientific Approach Chem. Immunol Allergy Basel, Karger: 91:174-187.
Bordatella pertussis whooping cough Bordatella vaccines and histamine effects http://tjclarkinc.com/bacterial_disease/whooping_cough.htm
22. Otto A, Extended from remarks given by Karen Vanderhoof-Forschner to the FDA Vaccine Advisory Committee Meeting 11/28/01; Lyme vaccine linked to auto-immune arthritis. Pharmacy Today 2001 January
23. Dodd Jean, Adverse Vaccine Reactions, Hemopet/Hemolife 938 Stanford St. Santa Monica, CA 90403 online: http://itsfortheanimals.com/Thyroid-articles.htm
24. Brennar J, Orgard U et al., Thymic Depletion Syndrome associated with a combined attenuated distemper parvovirus vaccine in dogs. Israel Journal of Vet Med 1988; 44(2): 151.
Cain MJ, Philosophy of Love Your Pets Immune Related Problems. Dr. Marvin J Cain, 7474 Green Farms Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45224-1210.
25. MacKay IR and Mitchison, Review Article Advances in Immunology, Tolerance and Autoimmunity, 2001 Mar 1; 344, (9):655-644.
Chen RT, Pless R, DeStefano F, Epidemiology of autoimmune disease reaction induced by vaccination. J Autoimmunity 2001; 16:309-318.
HogenEsch H, Axona-Oliver J, Scott-Moncreiff C, Synder, and Glickman LT. Vaccine induced auto-immunity in the dog. Adv Vet Med, 1996; vol 41:733-747. http://www.vet.perdue.edu/epi/gdhstudy.htm http://vonhapsburg.homestead.com/haywoodstudyonlinevaccines.html
Balomenos D and Mertinez CA, Cell cycle regulation in immunity tolerance and autoimmunity. Immunology Today 2000 Nov; 21 (11):551.
26. Reik L Jr., Disseminated vasculomyelinopathy: an immune complex disease. Ann Neurology 1980; 7: 291-295.
27. Auwaerter PG et al., Changes with T cell receptor V beta subsets in infants following measles vaccination. Clin Immunol Pathol 1996 May; 79 (2):163-70.
Beckenhauer WH et al., Immunosuppression with combined vaccines. JAVMA Aug 15 1983; (4):389-390.
Blumberg DA, Leukocyte response to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and diphtheria-tetanus immunization. Pediatric Infect Dis J 1991 Mar; 10 (3): 247-248.
Daniliuk OS et al., Immunodepressive action Vaccinia virus. Buell Eksp Bio Med Jul 1982; 94 (7): 73-74.
Ehrland W. Susceptibility to infection after vaccination, Br. Med J. Mar 11, 1972; 1:683.
Eibl MM et al., Abnormal T-lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy subjects after tetanus booster immunization. NEJM 1984 Jan 19; 310 (3):198-9.
28. Erasmus MC, Vaccine induced enhancement of viral infection. Institute of Virology 2009 Jan 22; 27 (4): 505-12.
29. Schultz RD, What everyone needs to know about canine vaccines and vaccination programs 2007 National Parent Club Canine Health Conference http://www.spinoneous.org/forum/uploaded/Admin/vaccinations2007.pdf
30. Memoranda WHO 1972 Vol 47 No. 1 Virus associated immunopathology animal models and implications for human disease 1. Effects of viruses on the immune system, immune-complex disease and antibody mediated immunologic injury. Memoranda WHO 1972 Vol 47 No. 2 Virus associated immunopathology; animal models and implications for human disease 2. Cell mediated immunity autoimmune disease genetics and implications for clinical research. Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on vaccine design: the role of cytokine networks, held June 24-July5, 1996 in Cape Sounion, Greece: New York, NY: Plenum Press 1997.
Anshu Agrawal, Poonam K et al., Thimerasol induces TH2 responses via influencing cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2007 February; 81:474-482. http://www.jleukbio.org
31. IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer; Summaries and Evaluations Surgical Implants and Other Foreign Bodies 1999 Feb 23; 74:24305-310.
32. Kass PH, et al., Epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between vaccination and fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis in cats. JAVMA, 1993; 203:396-405.
Munday JS et al., Histology and Immunohistochemistry of seven ferret vaccination site fibrosarcomas. Vet Pathology 2003; 40:288-293.
Vascellari M, Melchiotti E et al., Fibrosarcomas at presumed sites of injection in dogs, characteristics and comparison with non vaccination site fibrosarcomas and feline post vaccinal fibrosarcomas. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2003 Aug; 50 (6): 286-91.
Morrison WB, Starr RM et al., Vaccine associated feline sarcoma. JAVMA 2001; 218:697-702. Smith C, Are we vaccinating too much? JAVMA 1995; 207 (4):421-425.
Researchers probe vaccine associated feline sarcomas. JAVMA June 1, 2005 http://www.avma.org/onlnews/javma/sep04/040915k.asp
Couto CG, Macy DW. Review of treatment options for vaccine-associated feline sarcoma. JAVMA1998; 213:1426-1427.
Macy D, Vaccine-associated feline sarcomas. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 1999 Mar; 1 (1):15-21.
Macy D, Is it time for a Veterinary Vaccine Injury Compensation Act? http://www.catshots.com
Ford R, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM Vaccines and vaccination building the protocol-implementing the guidelines June 25,2007 Framingham, MA Sponsored by Merial.
Bode A and Dong Z, Post translational modification of p53 in tumorigenesis. Nature Reviews Cancer 2004 Oct 14; 4 (10): 793-805.
33. Questions and Answers about vaccine ingredients American Academy of Pediatric Physicians October 2008 http://www.vaccinateyourbaby.org/pdfs/vaccine_ingredients.pdf
Felex CA, Slaye I et al., p53 gene mutations in pediatric brain tumors Pediatric Blood and Cancer 2006 Jul; 25(6): 431-436.
34. Schultz RD, Everything you need to know about vaccines. June 15, 2007 Danbury, CT Sponsored by Cavaliers of the Northeast.
35. Schultz RD, Scott F, Veterinary Clinics of North America 1978, 8 (4):755-768.
36. Phillips TR, Schultz RD. Canine and feline vaccines in Kirks Current Veterinary Therapy XI (Small Animal Practice). Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders: 205.
Horzinek M, Schultz RD, Frequently asked questions. Oct 19, 2009 National Parent Club Canine Conference http://www.spinoneous.org/forum/uploaded/Admin/vaccinations2007.pdf
Wolf A, Vaccines of the past and the future. (WSAVA) World Small Animal Veterinary Association Conference 2001 Vancouver, British Columbia.
37. Berkelman RL, Human illness associated with the use of veterinary vaccines. Emerging Infections CID 2003(1 August); 37:407-414.
38. Fox MD, Genetically engineered and modified live virus vaccines; Public health and animal welfare concerns http://twobitdog.com/DrFox/Livevirus-vaccines-animal
Terje Traavik, genetically engineered pox viruses in cell cultures recombined with natural viruses to create new viruses with unpredictable and potentially dangerous characteristics. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Terje Traavik, Scientific Director Center for Biosafety of Norway, Professor of Gene Ecology, University of Tromso, Norway. Background document in risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) viruses for management of animal populations. Terje Traavik, Biosafety Officer of Norway University of Tromso, Norway prepared for the Norway Canada workshop on risk assessment for emerging applications of LMOs. June 4-6, 2007. Montreal, Canada. Research report for DN No 1999-6 An Orphan Science; Environmental risks of genetically engineered vaccines reported to Directorate for Nature Management http://www.naturforvaltning.no