Importance of Enzymes and Probiotics in Breeding Dogs

Importance of Enzymes and Probiotics in Breeding Dogs

 Randal K. Buddington, PhD; Jan Elnif, MS; Christiane Malo, PhD; Jillian B. Donahoo, BS *

Objective:  To measure activities of digestive enzymes during postnatal development in dogs.

Sample Population Gastrointestinal tract tissues obtained from 110 Beagles ranging from neonatal to adult dogs.

Procedure: Pepsin and lipase activities were measured in gastric contents, and amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities were measured in small intestinal contents and pancreatic tissue. Activities of lactase, sucrase, 4 peptidases, and enteropeptidase were assayed in samples of mucosa obtained from 3 regions of the small intestine.

Results:  Gastric pH was low at all ages. Pepsin was not detected until day 21, and activity increased between day 63 and adulthood. Activities of amylase and lipase in contents of the small intestine and pancreatic tissue were lower during suckling than after weaning. Activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin did not vary among ages for luminal contents, whereas activities associated with pancreatic tissue decreased between birth and adulthood for trypsin but increased for chymotrypsin. Lactase and -glutamyl-transpeptidase activities were highest at birth, whereas the activities of sucrase and the 4 peptidases increased after birth. Enteropeptidase was detected only in the proximal region of the small intestine at all ages.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance:  Secretions in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the duodenum, enzymes in milk, and other digestive mechanisms compensate for low luminal activities of pancreatic enzymes during the perinatal period. Postnatal changes in digestive secretions influence nutrient availability, concentrations of signaling molecules, and activity of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit pathogens. Matching sources of nutrients to digestive abilities will improve the health of dogs during development. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:627 634)

Recived August 14, 2002.

Accepted November 11, 2002.

From the Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Science (Buddington, Donahoo), and the Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Buddington), Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762; the Department of Animal Science and Animal Health, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark (Elnif); and the Membrane Transport Research Group, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada (Malo). © 2000-2004 American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs

Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs

Marie-Louise A. Baillon, PhD; Zoe V. Marshall-Jones, PhD; Richard F. Butterwick, PhD *


Objective:  To evaluate viability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in a dry dog food, determine its ability to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and populate the colon, and assess its effects on intestinal and systemic parameters.

Animals:  15 adult dogs.

Procedure:  Dogs were sequentially fed a dry control food for 2 weeks, the same food supplemented with > 109 L acidophilus for 4 weeks, and the control food again for 2 weeks. Fecal score was assessed daily, and fecal and blood samples were collected for enumeration of bacterial populations and measurement of hematologic variables.

Results:  Recovery of L acidophilus from the supplemented food was 71% and 63% at the start and end of the study, respectively, indicating that the bacteria were able to survive manufacture and storage. The probiotic bacterium was detected in feces via ribotyping and RNA gene sequencing during the probiotic administration phase but not 2 weeks after cessation of administration. Administration of the probiotic-supplemented food was associated with increased numbers of fecal lactobacilli and decreased numbers of clostridial organisms. There were significant increases in RBCs, Hct, hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, monocytes, and serum immunoglobin G concentration and reductions in RBC fragility and serum NO concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance:  These data indicate that L acidophilus can be successfully incorporated into a dry dog food, survive transit through the canine gastrointestinal tract, and populate the colon and are associated with local and systemic changes. This probiotic bacterium may have the potential to enhance intestinal health and improve immune function in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:338 343)

Received February 12, 2003. Accepted July 14, 2003. From WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, LE14 4RT, UK. Address correspondence to Dr. Baillon. View this Article (subscriber access required)

© 2000-2004 American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved

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